Supervised by Laurence Roulleau-Berger, Research Director at CNRS, ENS Lyon
Supervised by Liu Yuzhao, Professor and Deputee Director of School of Sociology and Political Science, Shanghai University LIA’s Coordinator
In France and in China labour uncertainty and instability have produced urban labour markets that reinforce social inequalities and discriminations. The transformations produce differentiated « work regimes » that affect different categories of young urban people.
In Shanghai and Beijing’s outskirts, during the last decade in transitional areas between city and countryside, disadvantaged youths have settled in recently built housing projects in which displaced youths from the city centers and the countryside already live. It is a new phenomenon of co-presence of different groups in situation of great economic vulnerability.
In the working-class neighbourhoods of Lyon, with the multiplication of social inequalities, ethnic discrimination, instability of work, young people with little qualifications are massively and violently cast away from the urban labour market or working in precarious, disqualified and dirty work. These young people in situation of social vulnerability develop socialization patterns in grey areas of economic uncertainty between center and fringes of urban employment. They are engaged in discontinuous economic socialization processes, fragmented by forced bifurcations leading either to professional integrations on the labour market or urban disaffiliation. Simultaneously, in these working-class neighbourhoods, young people create invisibilized skills repertoire in spaces of low urban legitimacy (intermediary spaces, associations, ethnic trade/shops). The issue at stake is then of the either partial, almost total, or non-translation of the skills produced in these low-legitimacy urban spaces to spaces of high economic legitimacy which produce a strong social recognition on the urban labour-markets.
The question of “forced mobilities” and “right to the City” looks quite new in social sciences but it is a more and more important topic in studies on international migration. Because the figure of migrants in Europe as in China is more and more demultiplied, the forced migrants and refugees’s situations do express what does it mean “to be integrated” or “to be excluded” or stigmatized in different cities. In French, Italian as in Chinese cities –here in Lyon, Milan and Shanghai- more and more population -especially young people- are forced into displacements and mobilities. In Europe, because economic crisis and wars, more and more new migrants converge in big cities and are experiencing processes of integration, exclusion, expulsion. In China, migrants who are facing to urban demolition, dams construction… it means forced displaced populations. In Chinese, Italian and French cities we will consider « communities of destiny » among migrants and refugees who are claiming a « right to the city » ; we will analyze « urban geographies of care » which produce at the same time solidarities and new inequalities, and which translate into new moral urban boundaries. In French, Italian and Chinese cities, urban government produces technologies of governance which articulate moral economies and administrative apparatuses in order to control the forms of inclusion of refugees and new migrants. Bio-political apparatuses can be seen as articulating moral economies of suspicion, contempt, compassion, and hospitality which are embedded in institutions and realized in particular forms of self-government. In the same time, migrants and refugees faced with plural forms of inequalities, violence and expulsions in French, Italian and Chinese cities claim a “right to the city” in different places, and by different means. So collective actions thus emerge and diffract between more or less noisy forms of engagement. So we are confronted with plurivocal groups of migrants and refugees, struggling for public and social recognition.
En France et en Italie de jeunes migrants d’Afghanistan, de Syrie, du Maghreb, d’Erythrée, de Chine, de Gambie, du Togo, du Sénégal..., après vécu de grandes épreuves migratoires, arrivent tous les jours à Paris, Lyon, Milan et doivent faire face à des situations de discrimination ethnique, de stigmatisation urbaine et de violence morale. Ils forment des « communautés de destin » capables de produire des formes de mobilisation collective pour prendre place dans les sociétés française et italienne, revendiquer « un droit à la ville ». Si des géographies urbaines du « care » participent à produire simultanément des économies morales de la compassio et, d’hospitalité mais aussi des nouvelles inégalités et hiérarchies sociales, les jeunes migrants développent des économies horizontales et réticulaires, produisent des luttes pour la reconnaissance publique au niveau local et transnational dans les villes européennes. Ces circulations invisibilisées et survisiblisées de jeunes migrants révèlent de nouvelles frontières morales qui naissent de grammaires de l’indécence en contexte globalisé.